But as says Turtullian one of the early Christian evangelists the blood of"INTRODUCTION 9 the martyrs is the seed of the church The -greater the persecution the more was the strength that was infused into the Sikh church. [...] All the resources of the Roman Empire under the Emperors of the type of the hated Nero failed to shake the belief of the early Christians in the simple teachings of their Saviour. [...] Thus Islam that born in the arid wastes of Arabia had carried the light of knowledge to the homes of the Spanards and the Portuguese the Gaul and the Goth the Roman and the Greek during the Dark Ages exercised the same benignant in-INTRODUCTION 19 fluence in the great continent of India. [...] Indeed the writings that lie has left which thanks to the boldness of his illustrious son and successor Guru Govind Singh adorn the pages of the Ad Granth are all couched in the style of the early Buddhist saints and the later Hindu Bhagats who emphasize the ephemeral nature of all worldly ties and connections and the reality only of living in spirit living in the Lord. [...] The Guru's illustrious great grandfather the prince of saints the most cultured man of the age and yet the lowliest of the lowly was the first to win the crown of martyrdom.