A language is a structured system of communication used by humans consisting of speech (spoken language) and gestures (sign language). Most languages have a visual or graphical representation encoded into a writing system, composed of glyphs to inscribe the original sound or gesture and their meaning.The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Critical examinations of languages, such as philosophy of language, the relationships between language and thought, etc, such as how words represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias and Plato in ancient Greek civilization. Thinkers such as Rousseau (1712 – 1778) have debated that language originated …

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post-Stalin era, through thousands of English-language insights written in the first person by officials

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